AUTOZINE TECHNICAL SCHOOL



  Department of Engine


Power Boosting Technology


Variable-valve timing (VVT)


Basic Principles

VVT's benefit to fuel consumption and emission

Different systems:

1. Cam-changing VVT - e.g. Honda 3-stage VTEC, Nissan VVL

2. Cam-phasing VVT - e.g. BMW Vanos / Double Vanos, Toyota VVT-i

3. Cam-changing + Cam-phasing VVT -  e.g. Toyota VVTL-i, Porsche Variocam Plus, Honda i-VTEC, Audi Valvelift, Mercedes Camtronic, GM iVLC

4. Rover's unique VVC

5. Continuous variable valve lift (CVVL) - e.g. BMW Valvetronic, Nissan VVEL, Toyota Valvematic

6. Electrohydraulic valve control - e.g. Fiat Multiair



Intake and exhaust


Tuned intake manifold

Variable intake manifold


Variable length intake manifold


3-stage variable length intake manifold

Continuous variable length intake manifold - e.g. BMW DIVA

Resonance intake manifold - e.g. Porsche VarioRam

Tuned exhaust & variable back-pressure exhaust



Multi-valve engines


History

Advantages and Disadvantages

Solutions - e.g. Toyota T-VIS

Number of Valves - 3, 4, 5 or more



Forced induction


Ram Air Intake

Supercharging


Roots type supercharger

Eaton TVS supercharger

Lysholm (screw type) supercharger

Centrifugal supercharger

Turbocharging


Overview

Light pressure turbo

Variable turbine geometry (VTG)

Twin-turbo


Parallel Twin-turbo

Sequential Twin-turbo

2-Stage Variable Twin-turbo

Twin-scroll turbo

Cross-bank turbocharging - BMW twin-turbo V8 as example

Turbo + Supercharger - e.g. Volkswagen Twincharger



Ignition


Twin-spark plug



Compression ratio


Variable Compression - Saab SVC

High Compression engines - Mazda Skyactiv-G




Green Technology


Petrol


Lean burn engine

Direct injection by stratified charge - Mitsubishi GDI

Direct injection by EGR - Renault IDE

Mercedes 3-valve approach to cut cold start emission

Honda ULEV and ZLEV engines

Mazda Miller Cycle engine

Throttleless engines - BMW Valvetronic

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (including EGR by means of VVT)



Diesel


Modern diesel engines

Common-rail direct injection diesel engines

PSA Particle Filter



Alternative fuel


Electric cars

Hybrid cars


Toyota Prius

Honda Insight

Fuel Cell cars - Mercedes NECAR 4




Engine Packaging


Volkswagen VR6 and W-engines


First generation VR6

Second generation, 24-valve VR6

W12 engine

W16 engine

W8 engine

W18 engine



Advanced materials


Aluminum head and block

Plastic or magnesium intake manifolds

Aluminum pistons and cylinder liners (including Nikasil and FRM)

Titanium connecting rods

Forged components



 
Engine Smoothness


Introduction and basic theory

Inline 2-cylinder engines

Inline 3-cylinder engines

Inline 4-cylinder engines (versus boxer-4)

Inline 5-cylinder engines

Inline 6-cylinder engines

V6 engines

V8 engines - flat-plane and cross-plane crank

V10 engines

V12 engines

All horizontally opposed (boxer) engines

Volkswagen VR6, W12 and W16

Volkswagen W8









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